On April 1, the traditional date of peak-snowpack measurements around the western U.S., snow-water equivalent (SWE) in the upper Henry's Fork watershed was at 106% of the 1981-2010 median. However, this value was only 98% of the long-term mean, based on records that go back into the 1930s at some sites. Among 32 river basins around Idaho, Montana, and Wyoming that are popular fishing and floating destinations, April 1 SWE was at or above the 1981-2010 median in all but 6 basins, which included the Gallatin, Clark Fork, Smith, Jefferson, and North Platte. The upper Henry's Fork ranked 22nd out of the 32 basins. Fall River came in 11th, and Teton River 15th. The basins with highest April 1 SWE this year were the Wind River, Big Wood, and Little Wood.
On March 12, snow-water-equivalent (SWE) in the Upper Henry's Fork subwatershed was 122% of the 30-year median. Unfortunately, the last two weeks brought record high temperatures, and we have already lost a large amount of snow. Today, SWE in the Upper Henry's Fork is only 104% of median. SWE is 127% of median in the Fall River subwatershed (down from its peak of 137%) and 125% of median in the Teton River subwatersed (down from its peak of 138%). Although some of the early snowmelt has been stored in Henry's Lake, Grassy Lake, and Island Park Reservoir--and in local and regional aquifers--the vast majority of recent record-high streamflows has flowed out of the upper Snake River basin. This water will not be available later in the summer when we need it most. Check back next week for detailed predictions of streamflow for the upcoming spring and summer.
Timing of snowmelt runoff affects river ecology, trout behavior, fishing experience, and mid-summer streamflow in natural and regulated river reaches.
Runoff timing is most strongly influenced by April-June temperatures (warmer = earlier runoff) and April 1 snow-water-equivalent (SWE; more snow = later runoff).
Since 1930, runoff timing in the upper Henry’s Fork has displayed a parabolic (upside-down “U”) trend over time, with the latest runoff occurring in the 1970s.
Date of 30-day peak streamflow in the upper Henry’s Fork in 2015 and 2016 ranked 2nd and 9th earliest, respectively, in the last 87 years. Earliest runoff on record occurred in 1934.
Over the past 30 years, mean April-June temperature at the watershed’s snow survey sites has warmed at 1.29°F per decade. All other factors being equal, this moves the 30-day peak flow window 5.4 days earlier each decade. Global climate models and data predict continued warming over the next few decades, so we can expect continued earlier runoff.
Runoff timing is poorly predicted by conditions in the month of March, so it is too early to make precise predictions of runoff timing in 2017. However, rapid loss of low- and mid-elevation snow since March 10 is greatly reducing the amount of snow on the ground. Thus, we are sure that runoff will be earlier than I would have predicted two weeks ago. Streamflow conditions will most likely be better than last year but not nearly as good as they could have been had the robust early-March snowpack stuck around until the beginning of April.
On February 7, snow-water-equivalent (SWE) in the Upper Henry's Fork subwatershed was 99% of the 30-year median. The intervening month has brought heavy precipitation to the entire watershed, raising the Upper Henry's Fork SWE to 120% of median. SWE is 131% of median in the Fall River subwatershed (up from 121% on February 7) and 135% of median in the Teton River subwatersed (up from 133% on February 7). All three subwatersheds have already reached their median peak SWE for the whole season.
Ten days ago, snow-water-equivalent (SWE) in the Upper Henry's Fork subwatershed was 89% of the 30-year median. As forecast 10 days ago, storms over the past few days have favored the northern part of the watershed for a change, raising the Upper Henry's Fork SWE to 99% of median. SWE is 121% of median in the Fall River subwatershed (up from 113% nine days ago) and 130% of median in the Teton River subwatersed (up from 123% nine days ago). Forecast calls for four more days of wet weather, followed by a week-long dry period.
Nine days ago, snow-water-equivalent (SWE) in the Upper Henry's Fork subwatershed was 91% of the long-term median. Following another large storm that dropped heavy snowfall across the southern part of the state but relatively little across the north, Upper Henry's Fork SWE has dropped to 89% of median. SWE is 113% of median in the Fall River subwatershed (down from 120% nine days ago) and 123% of median in the Teton River subwatersed (compared with 124% nine days ago). Models hint at a more northerly track for the next round of precipitation, which would help the upper Henry's Fork.
Here is a quick summary of the collaborative gill lice study that the Henry's Fork Foundation and the Idaho Department of Fish and Game initiated in June, 2016. For background information on this study, check out these links:
Eight days ago, snow-water-equivalent (SWE) in the Upper Henry's Fork subwatershed was 91% of the long-term median. One snowy day and seven dry days later, Upper Henry's Fork SWE is still at 91% of median. SWE is 120% of median in the Fall River subwatershed (down from 123% eight days ago) and 124% of median in the Teton River subwatershed (down from 130% eight days ago). Current forecasts call for near-average precipitation over the next five days, followed by below-average precipitation for several weeks after that.
Summary: Snowpack in the Upper Henry's Fork Watershed is Below Average
Half-way through the snow accumulation season, the amount of water in the snowpack (snow-water-equivalent or SWE) in the upper Henry's Fork watershed is only 91% of the 30-year median. As a result, we are anticipating another year of below-average streamflow in the Henry's Fork watershed upstream of Ashton. The upper Henry's Fork is the only watershed in the entire upper Snake River basin to have received below-average SWE so far this winter. Even the watersheds immediately to the south--Fall River and the Teton River--have received above-average snowfall. When these sub-watersheds are averaged in with the upper Henry's Fork, as is done all of the map-based and tabular products distributed by water-management agencies, the outlook for the Henry's Fork watershed as a whole appears much better than it is in the upper watershed, which is the most relevant to management of Island Park Reservoir and streamflows between Island Park and Ashton.